Minorca is situated in the centre of the western Mediterranean, being the same distance from the Iberia Peninsula and Sardinia; and from Languedoc and Algeria.
It is the most easterly and northerly of the Balearic archipelago and together with its 702 square kilometres and 216 kilometres of coastline it is (after Majorca) the second largest Balearic Island.
The islands shape resembles that of a kidney or bean. The longest length runs between Cabo de la Mola on the eastern coast and Cabo de Bajolí on the western side: some 53km.
The island is relatively flat and its highest points are located in the middle: El Toro (358m), S'Esclusa (267m) and Santa Águeda (260m). However the island has a diverse variety of landscapes, including lagoons, marshes, small springs, undulating hills and deep gorges.
The island’s coastline offers a multitude of safe anchorage areas and the islands crown is her magnificent port of Maó, the second largest natural port in the world. There is a maritime ode that says, “June, July, August and the Port of Maò are the best harbours in the Mediterranean”
From a geological point of view the island is clearly divided in two areas, best separated by the central spiral road running between Maò and Ciutadella. There is the Tramontana range to the north and the Es Migjorn to the south..
The northern Tramontana range has three different sub-areas. The first, situated within the north of Maó, Es Mercadal and Ferreries is formed by primary materials with a slate, sandstone quartz appearance. Its low level coast is rocky and irregular. The second sub-area is composed of materials from the lower Triassic, red and yellowish sandstone quartz type and clay sediments at the deeper layers. There are small rocky formations with thick vegetation and its coasts are mainly high cliffs. The third, ranging from the north of Alaior and part of the land between Ciutadella and Ferreries, holds Jurassic platforms occupied by forest extensions and rocky coastlines
The southern area is known as Es Migjorn. This region is composed of Miocene limestone commonly named "mares". Its landscape is quite even despite the number of gorges that cross the Miocene platform leading out to coves and beaches.